Learn more about targeted therapies for brain tumors.
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Our clinical experts at the Center for Neuro-Oncology are constantly investigating promising new therapy options for patients with all types of brain cancers. One promising new area is immunotherapy, which harnesses the power of the body's immune system to detect and combat tumors.
Where targeted chemotherapy drugs disable proteins that cancer cells need to grow, immunotherapy drugs stimulate the patient's own immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy is often made from an individual patient's tumor cells, or parts of them, which are processed in the laboratory and returned to the patient to stimulate a strong immune response.
This unique approach combines immunotherapy with precision cancer medicine. At the Center for Neuro-Oncology, we have a tremendous array of immunotherapy clinical trials — including vaccines, novel tumor-targeting therapeutics, and anti-angiogenic therapies in recurrent glioblastoma. Learn more about immunotherapies for brain tumors.
Clinical trials are scientific studies in which drugs, diagnostic procedures, and other therapies are tested in patients to determine if they are safe and effective. Participating in a clinical trial can help advance your own treatment, and can also improve the way cancer will be diagnosed and treated for patients in the future. At the Center for Neuro-Oncology, we conduct continuous research into the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors, offering a wide array of therapeutic options:.
The multidisciplinary experts at the Center for Neuro-Oncology can help you determine if taking part in a clinical trial is best for you. Between and patients are treated for glioblastoma at the Center for Neuro-Oncology each year. The treatment of glioblastoma may include surgery, followed by radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy, targeted chemotherapy during surgery, or simultaneous radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
Traditional drugs, and even targeted chemotherapy agents, have had little success in treating glioblastoma, which is the most serious type of brain tumor. The addition of a clinical trial for a new treatment can be added to standard treatment and can be beneficial. At the Center for Neuro-Oncology, we have a large volume and diverse spectrum of clinical trials for malignant gliomas. We conducted the first successful randomized clinical trial of immunotherapy to show a benefit in glioblastoma patients.
These are the first types of drugs to be related to attacking the genetic abnormalities of the tumors. A new vaccine, rindopepimut , given along with the anti-angiogenic drug Avastin, has shown promise in significantly improving the survival of patients whose tumors carry the mutation known as EGFRvIII , which is found in about one-third of glioblastoma tumors.
Dana-Farber researchers have helped to develop targeted molecular drugs for glioblastomas, and are identifying the most promising and best combination for our patients. Immunotherapy drugs stimulate the patient's immune system to recognize and eradicate cancer cells.
Clinical trials of new drugs that target P13 kinase one of the most critical pathways in glioblastomas and IDH1 one of the most common mutations in grade II and III glioma are ongoing. We have a large research program studying the biology of tumor stem cells, which are resistant to treatment, and finding the best drugs to eliminate them. Another area of great excitement is the development of therapies that stimulate the immune system to fight brain tumors. Several trials involving novel checkpoint inhibitors and tumor vaccines recently opened. We offer clinical trials for patients who are newly diagnosed with glioblastoma and clinical trials for those with recurrent glioblastoma.
The standard approach to treating lower-grade gliomas includes surgery, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy. Immunotherapy is also an evolving approach for low-grade gliomas. Surgery is a key component of the treatment of lower-grade gliomas, which, like high-grade gliomas, can be infiltrative and difficult to remove.
The treatment of CNS lymphoma has evolved over the past several decades, resulting in a reduction in the rate of disease recurrence. Treatment for CNS lymphoma includes low-dose radiation and high-dose methotrexate, an anti-cancer drug given systemically intravenously. High-dose methotrexate is an inpatient chemotherapy treatment; our experienced medical oncology nurses administer the drug and carefully monitor patients throughout their treatment. Clinicians at the Center for Neuro-Oncology have pioneered the treatment of CNS lymphoma through a number of clinical trials:.
We hope to offer clinical trials that use targeted therapy and immunotherapy to further advance the treatment of CNS lymphoma. Although treatments of primary cancers of the body continue to progress with better, more effective therapies, the drugs given to kill these cancer cells often cannot cross the brain's natural defense system, the blood brain barrier, which prevents the penetration of these cancer cell-killing drugs.
This makes it easier for cancer cells in the body to migrate and metastasize to the brain secondary tumor , even though you may have responded well to your primary cancer's treatment.
Our expert neuro-oncology team works with the medical oncology group responsible for your primary cancer. The treatment of brain metastases is surgery- and radiation-centric, and depends on the number of metastatic brain tumors. Our neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists collaborate to determine the approach to surgery and radiation — which may include whole brain radiation, stereotactic radiosurgery, or a combination of both.
Chemotherapy may also be a part of your treatment plan. Meningiomas are diagnosed in about 18, patients annually in the United States and account for about one-third of primary brain tumors.
How We Treat Brain Tumors
They are twice as common in women and have a high chance of recurrence. Meningiomas are generally slow-growing, and watchful waiting can be an initial treatment if there are no signs or symptoms. Depending on the location of your meningioma, the standard treatment is surgery, radiation therapy, or stereotactic radiosurgery. Our world-class neurosurgeons are known for their innovative and groundbreaking approaches to removing meningiomas. If surgery is indicated, they will assess the safest approach to removing the tumor, based on its location.
Treatment for Gliomas | Johns Hopkins Glioma Center
Neurosurgeons and researchers at the Center for Neuro-Oncology and the Broad Institute have successfully completed large-scale genomic sequencing that has revealed two DNA mutations that appear to drive about 15 percent of all meningiomas. With the results of this research, medical oncologists at the Center for Neuro-Oncology are working on the first immunotherapy clinical trial for the effective treatment of meningiomas. New Patient Appointments Clinical Trials Questions? Read disclaimer about translations Please note that some translations using Google Translate may not be accurately represented and downloaded documents cannot be translated.
Dana-Farber assumes no liability for inaccuracies that may result from using this third-party tool, which is for website translation and not clinical interactions. You may request a live medical interpreter for a discussion about your care. Brain Tumors. Share Print Email. Treatment options There are several treatment options for patients with adult brain and spinal cord tumors.
Five standard types of treatment can be used: Watchful waiting Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient's condition without giving any treatment until signs or symptoms appear or change. Surgery In most cases, treatment begins with surgery. One of the most important steps in your brain tumor care is choosing where to have your surgery If you are considering surgery for a brain lesion that may be a tumor, or is the recurrence of a previously removed tumor, our physicians can advise whether surgery and treatment at our hospital may make sense for your situation.
We perform the following surgical procedures for the treatment of brain tumors: Awake craniotomy : In this procedure, an opening is made in the skull and a piece of the skull is removed to expose the brain.
High-Grade Malignant Glioma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines
You will receive anesthesia and medication to numb your body, but you will remain awake through certain parts of the procedure to ensure that there is no loss of speech or functional motor skills while the tumor is being removed. Skull base surgery : The skull base is the bottom portion of the skull that supports the undersurface of the brain and protects many vital structures.
This area includes the roof of the eye sockets, cheek bone, top of the palate, the deep structures of the ear canals, and the bottom portion of the skull behind the head. The skull base contains cranial nerves and multiple arteries that control complex senses, including hearing, vision, and balance. Our skull base surgery team, using the latest imaging technology, can reach all areas of the skull base to treat a wide variety of cranial disorders. Your doctor may recommend a number of tests and procedures, including:.
Imaging tests. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is often used to help diagnose brain tumors. In some cases, a dye contrast material may be injected through a vein in your arm during your MRI study to help show differences in brain tissue. A number of specialized MRI scan components — including functional MRI , perfusion MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy — may help your doctor evaluate the tumor and plan treatment.
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Other imaging tests may include computerized tomography CT scan and positron emission tomography PET. Collecting and testing a sample of abnormal tissue biopsy. Depending on the location of the glioma, a biopsy may be performed with a needle before treatment or as part of an operation to remove the brain tumor. A stereotactic needle biopsy may be done for gliomas in hard-to-reach areas or very sensitive areas within your brain that might be damaged by a more extensive operation.
During a stereotactic needle biopsy, your neurosurgeon drills a small hole into your skull.
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A thin needle is then inserted through the hole. A biopsy is the only way to definitively diagnose a brain tumor and give a prognosis to guide treatment decisions. Based on this information, a doctor who specializes in diagnosing cancer and other tissue abnormalities pathologist can determine the grade or stage of a brain tumor. The pathologist will also examine the physical appearance and growth rate of your biopsy sample molecular diagnosis.
Your doctor will explain the pathologist's findings to you.
This information helps guide decision-making about your treatment plan.