There is very little, if anything, that remains untouched and primitive within it, and its sense of place has been generated as much by the hand of man as by the way in which nature has responded to the management of the land.
This thesis investigates how man relates to the environment through the process of building, dwelling and thinking. Throughout the development of the modern world mans perception of nature has altered. In doing so, man has become disengaged with nature and the landscape. The spiritual world, characterized by imagination as opposed to reason, feeling rather than logic, has also become detached from the world of nature.
In the early nineteenth century the Romantics believed that the emphasis on mathematics failed to recognize the richness of the natural world or the imaginative powers of human understanding. This led to a. Consequently a pragmatic understanding of nature through developments in science and mathematics has enriched a poetic and spiritual view of the natural world. The process includes both human and natural activity, creating disturbances that encourage the eco-system to adapt.
UK: Hard Press Publishers, Nature in Question. UK: Earthscan Publications, North Sea by a spit of land. For centuries man has adapted to this shifting landscape however recently attempts have been made to control the natural process of erosion and preserve the landscape. It is only recently, in geological terms, that mankind has become disengaged with the land through the development of the built environment.
The process of erosion along with the threat of a rising sea level leaves many coastal regions under threat. The disaster is the perception of the land. Kristin Schuster.
The principles established in this thesis are expressed through a landscape management strategy, a series of structures that form a seawater desalination plant located in the tidal backwaters north of Walton-on-Naze. The desalination plant aims to re-establish a community within the fragile ecology that exists on the site, shaping how a culture evolves and challenge the disengagement between man and nature that exists.
The physical manifestation of the plant will engage. Contemporary landscapes are not a product of a single intention, but numerous converging processes. Maps, a subject often explored by artists, can embody the 7. In order to explore the relationship between man and nature it is important to highlight the historical social developments and current views on the environment.
In this world-view the mental and the material, the spiritual and the physical, are sharply divided from one another, with the mental and the spiritual realm completely excluded from the realm of nature, a view usually known as dualism. Clarke suggests that while we might be concerned with questions about the environment, this concern is wholly anthropocentric and does little to challenge the general world-view.
Along with sea level rise, isostatic post-glacial rebound is the term used to describe the tilting of the British Isles. This rebound of Scotland is in turn pushing the South of England into the sea. The Environment Agency has been able to monitor and accurately measure this subsidence at a rate of mm per year. These environmental predictions suggest that whether in the near future or in the next century the landscape of the South of England will change drastically despite mans attempts to defend it.
This creates an opportunity for architectural responses, that question how society and the built environment can evolve, exploring the relationship between the man-made and the natural world. The study considers the implications of three approaches; defence, the structure will protect the fragile landscape,. UK: Earthscan Publications Ltd, P12 6.
Wigley and Raper, Thermal expansion of sea water. Nature Dutch Delta Works. The most recent addition to the Delta works is the Maeslankering storm surge barrier; completed in the barrier protects Rotterdam and the surrounding towns and agricultural land. When a storm surge of 3 meters above normal sea level is anticipated the barrier is closed automatically. The strategy for defence contradicts the proposed shoreline management plans drawn up for the Essex coast by the Environment agency. The plan phases a managed retreat over years according to sea level rise predictions.
The existing sea wall is breached in places and maintained where the built environment requires. This method is more economically and environmentally sustainable. The land behind the breached sea wall then becomes salt marsh; a natural defence against the sea. The project is a response to the erosion of a coastal shoreline where the village of Happisburgh in Norfolk, formerly located inland is at risk of falling into the sea. The houses become machines, attached to devices that mimic techniques for hauling boats from the sea, allowing them to retreat further inland.
The project adopts an architectural language of impermanence that complements and contributes to the nature of the restless landscape. Each house is moored to a metal pole and sits on a set of hollow concrete pontoons. Taking the concept of attack further, Frits Schoute He expects that due to high density on land and the threat of rising sea level, man will colonize the live and work on the platform by Essex has one of the longest coastlines in England comprising of complex estuary systems, extensive salt marshes and intertidal areas of international conservation importance.
The geology of coastal Essex is a complex array of varying marine, alluvial and glacial drift sediments that overlay or border the thick deposits of London clay and terrace gravels. The clay is part of the older strata of rocks that form the eastern sector of the London basin, a bowl created from the Cretaceous chalk. The characteristic fringing marshlands protected by sea walls were traditionally grazing marsh but most of the land is now ploughed. These level, ancient marshlands with their relic dykes and ditches, composed of varied marine sediments lying at the seaward foot of the low clay hills or terrace gravels are often still visible, generally extend no further than 5m AOD.
Archaeological work carried out in the coastal area of Essex has revealed extensive evidence for prehistoric settlements. At the beginning of the current interglacial period, people. Evidence from what were dryland sites along the coast suggest that communities at this time were mobile, undoubtedly exploiting resources from the sea, as well as the land, vulnerable coastal settlements were abandoned each year. From Roman times to the twentieth century there is evidence of military defence along the coast, an early example is the Roman fort of Bradwell on sea.
In post-medieval times Martello towers were constructed, imposing structures standing out over the low lying marshlands. Second World War pillboxes are located along the sea wall at pivotal access points between the marshland and the surrounding settlements. These monolithic concrete structures, although no longer in use, observe the shifting landscape. The distinct sea walls that protect large parts of the old grazing marshes are medieval in origin, around the Walton backwaters the timber structures of these ancient sea walls have been exposed where the walls have been undercut. The dynamic relationship between man and the sea along the Essex coast is not just defensive.
Waterborne transport was the prime method of movement for people and goods throughout the greater Thames and east coast.
From the Saxon period every farm would have had a simple quay alongside which barges could tie up. The marshland areas of the Essex coast have been important for agriculture since the late Bronze Age. The grazing marshland produced wool and dairy produce for both local use and export to London. On the higher ground a mixed agriculture of grassland and arable developed.
Woods, Lebbeus ()
More recently, environmental schemes such as the re-alignment of the sea wall at Abbots Hall Farm hope to restore some of the grazing marshland. Historically, most settlements are located beyond the edge of the marsh on the higher land, where farms often just above the 5m AOD in a line above the marsh. Paved roads and lanes lie close to the m AOD contour with unpaved track ways, usually to farms or old quays, forming right-angled routes down to the marsh edge and beyond to the creeks or sea, testifying the importance of water in commercial and agricultural life until the beginning of the 20th century.
This tragedy was shared with the Dutch, whose death toll was even higher. Along the coast the evidence of the struggle to retain, if not reclaim, the sea can be seen in breakwaters, groynes, and revetments that divide up so many beaches. These are similarly evocative structures, seeking to protect and retain the land against the daily encroachments of the North Sea. Marginal arable farmland has been exchanged for new salt marshes and grazing marsh with a proliferation of returning marine plant life and bird life. In the long term the Essex coastline, so crucial to the unique identity of the county, is being retained as a naturally shifting boundary between land and sea, rather than being industrially farmed to within inches of the sea wall.
This has now happened at Abbots hall farm on the Blackwater and is currently happening at Deveraux Farm on the Walton Backwaters. From early impressionist landscape painting to modern cartography and O. S maps, each aims to depict features within a place that characterise it. Landscape painting as a form of map derived from mans need to control the land, it was an expression of power and wealth. B, History of Cartography, xvi L, Transient Sedimentation, By their very nature, Ordnance survey maps fail to portray the experiential character of the landscape and topography.
To gain a better understanding of the landscape aerial photographs or satellite images can be used. An aerial photograph could be argued to be more accurate than an Ordnance survey map. Simply by the level of detail, materiality and texture,.
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These maps relay data from a past event, however they do not provide information on possible events that will occur in the future. In the past 50 years cartographers have used air photography as a way of surveying the land. An air photograph however depending on the angle it was taken distorts the landscape.
The science of photogrammetry, which is concerned with the making of maps from measurements taken from air photographs, has developed from the need to remove these distortions of shape. In order to gain a better sense of place other methods of mapping need to be explored.
Artists such as Richard Long and Layla Curtis navigate the space between cognitive mapping and Cartesian coordinates to consider mapping in terms of permanence, impermanence, identity of place, human emotion and creative expression. She used GPS tracking equipment that recorded her whereabouts every few seconds. Richard Long explores the cognitive and the Cartesian through the act of walking, believing that walking - as art - provides an ideal means to explore relationships between time, distance, geography and measurement.
The artist Layla Curtis created maps of Antarctica during an expedition Mapping of can be used to describe the O. Artist Nigel Peake creates maps through the memory and experience of place. He uses pen and ink to describe pattern and texture and he uses text to represent the narrative of place.